This is a work in progress.
Eliezer Yudkowsky, Slate Star Codex, Gwern Branwen -- A rationalist blogger power-trio. These three consistently make me rethink my point of view.
Calvin & Hobbes -- My favorite comic ever. I think every reader saw themselves in Calvin, his imagination and refusal to follow the rules. Credit to Bill Watterson for creating consistently great content and ending the strip before the content ever got stale.
Visual Complex Analysis -- This book takes an intimidating subject, tells you to ignore the equations and focus on the intuition. Wonderful visualizations. This is what I'm all about.
Gödel, Escher, Bach -- This book (along with SICP, next) profoundly influenced my direction in life. Beautifully written and fascinating.
Bret Victor -- Inventing on Principle is a classic closely related to my interests, but it's just one example of consistenly great work from Bret.
Ben Kamens, Andy Matuschak, Ben Alpert, Craig Silverstein -- Enough people I've never met. These are some of the best engineers I've ever worked with, who each taught me something about making great software. I'm grateful for having learned from each of you.
Elon Musk. Probably the biggest inspiration on this list.
Maxwell's Equations / General Relativity / QED